How to cite

You need to cite sources in your papers to avoid plagiarism and allow readers to track down the source content. But how should you format the citations and bibliography?

There are several citation styles to choose from, and some are for specific subjects or publications. Check with your instructor or publisher for the preferred style.

Use the guides below to see citation rules and examples. Or collect your references in one of our citation management tools that formats citations for you. 

General citation guides

American Psychological Association guide (used in the social sciences)

Chicago guide (used in history and some social sciences)

Modern Language Association guide (used in the humanities)

Subject-specific citation guides

Biology

Chemistry

Engineering

Government Documents

Journalism

Law

Medicine

Sociology